Critique an empirical article that uses one of the research designs.
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- 1000 words
Critique an empirical article that uses one of the research designs. Note: APA Style1000 words
WALIA journal 30(S3 ): 43-51, 2014 Available online at www.Waliaj.co m ISSN 1026-38 61 © 2014 WA LIA 43 I mpact of the effectiveness o f organizational c ommu nication on job satisfactio n throug h job motivation of employees o f Shiraz Telec o mmunication Company Ali D arijani 1 , Has san Soltani 2,* , Mo hammad Ali Pourroo staei 3 1 Assista nt p ro fesso r of Payam-E-Noor Unive rsity , T eh ran , Iran 2 Departme nt of Mana ge men t, Marvdasht Bra nch, Islami c Az ad Unive rsity , Ma rv da sh t, Iran 3 D epa rtme nt o f Ma nagement, Kerman B ra nch, Islami c Az ad Unive rsity , Kerman, Ira n Abs trac t: This researc h is a so litary and causal (subsequenc e) k ind determining the effectiveness o f organizational co mmunic atio n on job satisfac tion through job mo tiv ation o f em ployees o f Shiraz Telecommunic atio n Com p any. The study populatio n consisted of all emplo yees of Shiraz Teleco mmunication Co mpany amo ng whic h 248 ar e selected by simple random sampling for the researc h . Data co llectio n was done thro ugh three questionnaires of effectiveness of organiz ational communication, jo b satisfactio n and job mo tivatio n which was dist ribut ed and co llec ted among the members of research populatio n after the confirmation of reliability and validity. Data collected from the questionnaires w ere analy zed using SPSS an d LISREL so ftware and employing descriptive and illative statistic al methods. R esearc h findings indicate tha t in Shiraz T elecommunication C ompany , effectivenes s of organizational communicatio n on job satisfac tion, j ob motiv atio n on jo b satisfactio n, effectiveness o f organizational co mmunic atio n on job motivation and job mo tivation acts as a mediato r in the direc tion o f the impact on jo b satisfactio n and organizational co mmunic atio n. Key words: E ffectiveness of o rg an iz atio na l co mmun ication ; Job motiva tion ; Job satisfaction ; Emp lo yees o f Sh iraz Tele co mmun ication Company 1. Intro duc tion *In a work gr oup or organization , communication thro ugh co ntrollin g perfor mance method r es ults emp lo yees’ motiv atio n. Also, for many o f the emp lo yees, grou p is the mos t imp ortan t so urce of so cial communication (recipro city or interactio n) an d thereby they reduce their stress deals. Finally , the factor of communication can p rov ide information for in dividuals and gr oup s who need them for decision-mak in g and can exchange data thro ugh various perfo rmance methods and then evalu ate and choos e the best method or so lu tion (Scott and Mitchell, 19 76). Wor kplaces are of great impo rtance in es tablis hing and maintaining so cial inter action wit h others in employ ees ’ s atis faction. H owev er, this fa ct is mor e evident for employees who tend to interactio ns mo re than o thers . Ind iv idu als who n eed interactio ns pr efer jobs in which they can in teract with others an d s uppo rt them. Regard less of the emp lo yees need fo r inter action, when wo rking gr oup s ar e fo rmed o n the bas is of s imilar s kill lev els , job satis factio n and pr oductiv ity incr eas es . In oth er researches is kn own that job satis factio n is un der effect of p opularity among colleagues and als o gr ou p co rr elatio n (Alizadeh, 200 8). Ho wever, organiz atio n upgrades and pr omotions can have benefits for the individual and the * Corr espo ndin g Au thor. or ganiz ation, but becaus e of v ariou s factor s such a s gender, education, ty pe o f perso nal needs , sk ills, and so only a few of the s taff wor king in the organizat ion can reach higher p ositio ns (Jansr ad, 1991 ). But the impor tant po in t is that o rganizations are obliged t o impro ve an d d evelo p employees’ career path and satis factio n, and ultimately satisfy employ ees’ w ho ar e s eeking p rofes sion al dev elopment. F or this pu rpose, determining an d imp lementing transparent an d objective criteria for employees’ pro motio n wil l be a ver y usefu l way (Ts hyk vr v, 1 994). When r eas ons or lack of job satisfaction of emp lo yees ar e specified , mor e fu ndamental effor ts can be d esign ed to imp rov e work in g co ndition s and satis factio n. B ecause when a per son is s atis fied of his job uncons cious ly will be mo re respo nsible and carefu l, ther efore will be hap pier. Thus , in this study, is d is cus sed about the imp act o f organization al co mmunication effectivenes s on job s atis faction and job motivation med iated by job motivation. 2. Res ear ch litera ture 2.1. Communica tions C ommunication means to convey. If there was no data or in tellectu al co nnectio n, commu nications wou ld n ot exist. A Speaker who is not listen ed to o r a writer , whose word s ar e no t r ead , has n ot co mmunicated. In or der to make a s ucces sful co nnectio n, n ot o nly meaning has to be transfer red, Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 44 bu t must also be u nder stoo d. So commun icatio n is tran smitting and unders tanding of the concept. Perfect co mmu nication – if s uch a thing is po ss ible – exis ts when thou ght or idea is r eceived exactly wit h the same pur pos e that has been submitted (A arabi et al., 20 00). 2.2. Impo rtance of c ommunications Co mmunication is on e of the fun damental facto rs of organization identity an d as Fifner in dicates is the heart and es sence o f management which p lanning activities, or ganiz ing, co ord in atin g, leading and co ntrol is managed thro ugh that. Communicatio n is exchange of the “mess age” fr om on e p ers on to an other , thro ugh an intermediary and a s ens e of awarenes s and und ers tanding amo ng the human elements. Jo hn Cu tter con sists communication pr ocess of three elements: s end er – mess age – receiv er. Fro m his p oint of v iew, when there is no co mmunication in an o rganization it is no t defined as an o rganization no matter how is defined. Co mmu nications in or gan iz atio ns ar e the so urce of po wer an d mean s fo r ap ply in g the optimal legal and ad minis tr ativ e actions that ar e in the o rganization al hier ar chy . Co mmunication as a “mean s” for applying po wer and ways in o rganization networ ks and related laws is a path to flo w. In organiz atio n, po wer flo ws throu gh co mmu nication an d applies thro ugh op por tun ities pro vided by the flo w of co mmunication, then dev elops and finally jo in s in or gan iz atio nal con text an d is pr eserv ed (F akhimi, 200 0). Effective communication is impor tant for man agers for two reas ons . Fir st, the communication is a p roces s by which man agers achiev e p lanning stru cture, leaders hip and con tr ol. Second , the co mmunication is an activ ity in which man agers sp end much of their time. Manager s rarely think or plan alo ne. As a matter of fact, management time is mainly time for face to face, mail or telephone co mmunications with individu als, peers, s uper visors , su ppliers or cu stomer s. While n ot dealing with others in p ers on or by telep hone, man agers may write or r ead a memo , repor t or letter (Stoner and Fr eeman, 1992 ). 2.3. Effe ctiv enes s in inter per sonal co mmunic atio ns Inter per son al communicatio ns, like o ther fo rms of hu man behavior can be con sider ed in two extr emes , highly effective and highly ineffective. Mos tly, no hu man interactio n can be fully s ucces sfu l or entir ely disappointing. It may impro ve or maybe wor sens. In o ther wo rds , the concept of the r elativ ity of human behav io r and the r elations hip between people even tu ally and co mp letely is do min ant. Effective interp ers onal communicatio ns includ e two fundamental aspects. Fir st, pragmatic d imension where effectiv e communication and success in achieving goals and desires of the recipient or s en der of the mess age is n oticed. The s eco nd o ne is satis factio n d imension which the effectiv eness of co mmunicative actio n is related to pleasur e and joy which is conn ected to pr actitio ner s. If those inv ol ved in the communication pr ocess , en jo y the interp ers onal co mmu nication by the satisfaction cr iteria can be imp lied effective actio n. It s hould be co nsidered that accor ding this classification these as pects sho uld not be as su med separ ated fro m each other and does not act s eparately . Often people’s satis factio n of communicativ e action is contin gen t on ho w much they have reached their go als and ho w much they ar e distan t from them. On the other han d, we can s ay mos t of the time achieving goals and sens e of s ucces s based on the level o f satisfactio n has been r esu med of the in teraction (Farhangi, 2001 ). 2.3. Impo rtanc e of o rga niz atio n Communica tions C ommunication is vital fo r organization man agers and their jo b. Kanter (1 977) fou nd that man agers s pend a large amoun t of their time on co mmunication s. This commu nication is usu ally es tablished by holdin g coun cil. Manager s s hou ld resp ond to mes sages by phone and e-mail. In sho rt, it is said that manager s’ main tas k is communication (Par saeey an an d Araabi, 1 997). C ommunication is a very impor tant s kill and the need for efficient management; thr ough which man agers establish and maintain inter actions between emp lo yees to per fo rm necessary d aily tas ks pr operly ( Abbas poor and Baro otian, 2 010). Or ganization Co mmu nication is a co or din atio n of relatio nships that exist between organization bodie s . In today’s o rganizations , info rmation sho uld be tran sfer red fas ter than an y o ther time (Mos habaki, 20 01). Co mmu nication is neces sar y to advance the go als of the in stitutio n, because this task, r elate s other management task s to gether. C ommunication als o links ins titutio n to the extern al enviro nment. It is throu gh exchange o f in fo rmation that man agers ar e info rmed o f customer requirements, availability of materials , the demands of s har eho ld ers , go ver nmen t regulations , and the reaction of society . It is throu gh co mmu nication that each organization becomes an o pen s ystem, which has r ecipr ocity with its envir onmen t (Kuntz et al., 19 80). C ommunication is o ne of the mo st impor tant elements of the managemen t pro cess. Effectiv e and pr oper commu nication in o rganization has always been es sential part of s ucces s in managemen t. E xperience has pro ved that, if the or gan iz atio n is no t in a pr oper communication , circu lation of affaires will be distur bed and mes sed . Co ord in atio n , plan ning, organization , co ntrol and other fu nctions in the abs en ce of an effective communicatio n sys tem ar e not r ealized an d the po ssibility of man aging or ganiz ations will no t be p rov id ed (Mir abi, 2001 ). E ffective communicatio n is inevitable and bind ing activ ity of individu al, gr oup, organization an d commun ity in all hu man so cieties. In this stud y , four k ey indicato rs o f effective co mmunication s uch as : empathy, op enness , s uppo rt and s ocial sk ills an d its r elation to indicato rs of jo b satisfaction an d job Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 45 motivation are d is cus sed. In to day ’s o rganizations , due to changes in employees ‘ needs , env ir onment should be p rov id ed that is stimulating and satisfyi ng much more than ju st p hys io lo gical an d s afety needs (Hers ey and Blanchard, 198 9). 2.4. Jo b s atis fa ction F is her and Han na (1 939) con sider job satis factio n as a ps ychological factor an d defin e i t as a k ind of emotio nal adjus tment to the job requirements, meaning that if the job p rov id es idea l co nditio ns, the per son will be s atis fied with the j o b. But if the jo b d oes n ot p rov id e satisfaction an d jo y, the perso n starts r epr oaching job an d will po ss ibly leav e the job. 2.5. Type s of job s atis fa ction Gins ber g and colleagu es , who have co nsidered the various p ers pectiv es of jo b satisfaction, refer to two ty pes o f job s atis factio n: In ner s atis faction is o btained from two s our ces . The firs t is feeling of jo y that a man obtain s only by engagemen t an d activities . The secon d is p leas ure of o bserving the pr ogr es s or doing s ome social respo nsibilities and con vey in g the appear ance of abilities and individual inter ests. Outer satisfaction which is co nnected to the co ndition s of emp lo yment and wor k o ut and is per manently changin g an d ev olving. Extern al factor s can be pointed as co ndition s of job, wages and bonu ses , type o f wor k and r elations between wor ker s an d employers (Zirak Abd arloo , 20 12). Achiev ing Ind iv id ual jo b satisfaction depen ds on sever al factors that all together lead to the des ir ed result. Job satisfaction is a k ey factor in many of individual behavior featur es and affects organizati on functions ; job s atisfaction incr eases pro ductivity and co mmitment to the or ganization, ens ur es the perso n’s p hys ical and mental health and also incr eases a per so n’s hop e. Some o f the cons equences of lack of job satisfaction include performance, absen teeism, tran spo rtatio n, delay for job and deser tion (Gholizdeh et al., 2 011). Although job diss atis faction, pr imarily r educes efficiency and incr eases cos ts in the wo rkp lace, bu t when co ntinu e s it will weak en ind iv idu als’ co mmitmen t to the valu es, nor ms, and s ocial trus t an d goals ( Maeedfa r an d Zahani, 2 005). Un dou btedly manager s mus t be sensitiv e about emp lo yees’ diss atis factio n. The impor tance o f job satisfaction and co nsequences of job dissatis factio n in the wo rkp lace and co nsequently in s ociety caus e the special attentio n of director s and o fficer s of each comp any to that. Man agers can find a s olutio n to pr oblems by measur in g job s atis factio n and identifying emp lo yees’ majo r is su es. In 19 35 fo r the firs t time the con cept of job satisfaction was expr es sed by Hop ok who fou nd that job s atis faction of employees is a co mbination of phys ical and p sychological sens e of their wor kplace (Tis sa et al, 2007). Jo b satisfa ction is fo rmed by individu als’ cogn itive and emo tion al reaction s and their attitudes toward their job and wor k (G olpar var and Nadi, 201 0). Job satis factio n i s a po sitive or pleasant emo tion al s tate res ulting fr o m the appr aisal of practitioner o f the job o r job exper iences (Weiss, 200 2, quoted by R avari, 20 12) an d the facto rs that p lay an imp ortan t role in job satis factio n can be named as follows: 1 -Seek in g challenging jobs: Jobs that are challenging and p rov id e the op por tu nity for individuals to express their abilities and sk ills a nd freely sho w their successful achievements, 2 – Same rights and benefits : fair rights and benefits r es ult to satisfaction . Individuals exp ect that type of job, level o f skills , payment s ys tem and pr omotion policy to be fair and unequivo cal. 3 – Pro per wor king co ndition s: the pu rpo se of wor king conditio ns is wor kplace. 4 – Hav in g goo d co lleagues: Having good co lleagu es incr ease job s atis faction, 5 – The pro por tion o f people with jobs: If the jo b i s co mmens urate with the per so n, he will succeed and ther efor e satisfied (A sghar i, 200 7). Ov er the y ear s, var io us theo ries have been paid attention directly or ind ir ectly to the s ubject of job satis factio n, Herz ber g’s two -facto r theor y is o ne o f thes e theor ies, Freder ick Her zberg’s p res en ted the theo ry between 19 50 an d 1960 . The bas ic framewor k o f the two-factor theory was fo unded, bas ed on inter views o f 200 acco untants and engineers in the Peters bur g. Herzberg stated that man has two different kind s of needs which are es sen tially ind ependent of each other and each k in d influen ce behav io r differ ently. He r ealized that when p eop le feel diss atis faction o f their jo b, the diss atis faction is r elated to the en viron ment in which they wor k. When peo ple feel satis factio n of their wor k, the satisfaction is co ncern ed the wor k itself. Her zberg’s described health facto rs fir st kind of needs s ince these need s describe the man’s enviro nmen t and their main function is to pr ev ent job dis satisfaction, he call ed the second kind motiv atio nal s in ce these needs pr ovide motivation for better perfor mance. Health factor s include: o rganization policies and man agement, s upervision , wor king co ndition s, the interr elations hips of people, mo ney , pos ition and secu rity . Health factor s do not influ ence work er’s pr odu ctiv ity an d efficien cy; they o nly preven t was t e resu lting fr om negligence in the p erfor mance of the wor ker . Motivation al factor s include: business su ccess , gr atitud e for do in g s o, and effo rtfu l jo b, incr easing res pon sibility, growth and pro sperity. These factor s have a pos itive impact on job satis factio n and often incr ease the ov erall efficie ncy of the man (Her sey and Blan chard, 197 2). Althou gh Her zberg’s model in relatio n to job motivation is of gr eat fame and widely accepted by man agers , but was qu ickly criticized and objected, Fo r example, the two-factor theor y o f motivation, i s just a piece o f con tent, an d fails to pr es ent the f ull express io n o f motiv atio nal is sues in or ganizations (Bro omand , 20 06). Ano ther defect o f the theor y is Da rijan i et a l / WALIA, 30(S 3) 2014, P ag es: 43- 51 46 that it does n ot take individual differ ences in to co nsideration. Moreover, this theo ry do es n ot s peci fy the r elatio nship between motivation and job satis factio n, in fact in this theo ry job satis facti o n has been cons id er ed generally an d the s ituation al variables hav e no t been co nsidered and as a reply t o Her zberg’s ques tion s p eop le tend to give socially desirable ans wer s (As ghari, 2007 ). In to day’s competitive wo rld, the man ager can no t only r ely on technical skills to s ucceed. He mu st also have the s kills and abilities o f human relatio ns . Amon g all managemen t tas ks , managing human elements is the main task , since all other tas ks depend on this. Amon g the behav io ral s cien ces , perhaps on e of the mos t impor tant an d boister ous co ncepts is job s atis faction which on o ne han d has derived theoretical and fu ndamental effor ts and on the other, has been the mo st impo rtant at all level s of man agement and human r es our ces. This impor tance is because of its r ole on impr ovement and develop ment o f or gan iz atio n and wor kfor ce health an d o n the o ther hand, it is d ue to the fact that j ob satis factio n in addition to numerou s definition s an d co nceptio n, it has been the structu re o f the co nflu ence of many s cien tific fields s uch as ed ucation , ps ychology, management, so ciology, econo mics and even p olitics . Accor din g to many exper ts , among all concepts that exper ts in or gan iz atio nal behav io r, management and or gan iz atio nal and ind ustrial p sychologists have stud ied about in var io us o rganization al op por tun ities, job satisfaction is the mos t impor ta nt research ar ea (Abbasi zadeh and Raees i, 200 8). 2.6. Motiva tion Motivation was taken fro m the L atin ter m “mov e” for the fir st time meaning changing place fr om one po sition to another. Mo tivation is the reaso n for a particular behav io r. In other wo rds , an individu al wou ld n ot have a par ticu lar behav io r if ther e was n ot an y incentiv e or stimu lu s. Human motiv atio n, whether co nscio us or uncons ciou s, is due to his needs . So it can be s aid that the definition of motivation is : motiv atio n or need is the intern al state and a deficit or depr ivation that stimu late people to p erfor m as some activities (Sey yed Javadian, 2007 ). The pu rpo se o f job mo tivation is factors , co nditio ns an d circu mstances that have dr awn, and co ntin ue to give the des ir ed behav io r ass ociated with its jo b pos itions (Moghad ami p oor , 20 03). Job Motiv atio n is a pr ocess by which affect hu man behav io r and preser ve his inter es t to achieve the go als of the organization (Safavi, 19 98). Job motivation is on e of the too ls that can be u sed to get clos e or achiev e go als. For manager s, there are various optio ns to motiv ate employ ees: but Motivation canno t be load ed o n each o f the emp lo yees after a test and then us e its ad van tages . Motivation is somehow flo ating and changing every moment du e to in div id uals’ active des ir es , tas tes a nd char acter is tics which influ ence them. Managers are faced with many p roblems to motivate employ ees . Fo r example, choo sing a metho d o f motiv atio n is a difficu lt management (Afje, 20 06). In the p res ent study, jo b mo tivation has been co nsidered bas ed on Hackman and Oldham mo del. Richard Hack man an d Greg Oldham have d evelo ped the mos t comprehensive job p rofile mo del, un der stand ing the concept of char acteristics of job motivational, they hav e deter min ed 5 key featur es that can be u sed to describe the p otential motivations job. Thes e features ar e: 1-Variety of s kills: it refer s to the extent to whi ch a job requires employees to us e their s kills and abilities . 2-Task id entity: it r efers to whether the job has definite star t and en d, and that u pon the co mpletio n of certain parts of this jo bs. 3-The impo rtance of the tas k: The extent to which a job has an impact on other people in side and outs ide the organization . 4-indep end ence: r efer s to the indepen dence of the job and that ho w much employ ees have freedo m an d con tr ol in deter min ing wor k sched ule, decision or deter min atio n of a wo rk tool. Given the imp ortan ce of the r ole and resp ons ibilities o f organiz atio ns the impo rtance of or ganiz ation co mmunication s will be d oubled. Man agement o f an y o rganization should be noted that achieving o rganizational goals at differ ent le vels mus t be effective. This is po ssible when the co mmunication an d the communication paths are pr operly d esign ed and clearly d efined. Lack of pr oper conn ection can result idleness of us eful capacity o f the units an d manager s’ u nawarenes s of un its abilities . Organization s will be su ccess fu l i n so cieties as a so urce of p rod uction an d ser vices an d co mmunity d evelo pmen t if pay s pecial attention to hu man resou rces as the mo st impo rtant capital and factor s in each o rganization. Human r eso urce is a co mplex factor that has differen t motiv atio ns and attitudes. Sometimes manager s’ and employ ees ’ inability in co mmunicating pro per ly with other co lleagu es in wo rkp lace or their n egative attitu des an d lack of motivation cau se inability to d o their task s des ir ably an d ultimately we ar e faced with declin in g pr oductiv ity an d jo b satis factio n of emp lo yees. Re sea rch hypothes is 1 . Organization Commu nications has a significance effect o n the job satis factio n of emp lo yees of Shiraz Telecommun icatio n Comp any. 2 . There is a s ignificance r elations hip between job motivation and job s atis factio n of emp lo yees of Shir az Teleco mmunication C ompan y. 3 . There is a sign ifican t relations hip between or ganiz ational commun icatio n and mo tivation of emp lo yees. 4 . Organization Co mmu nication has s ignificant influ ence on the job satisfaction of employees thro ugh job mo tivation o f Shir az Telecommunication Co mpany . D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 47 Fig . 1: Co nceptual mo del of research Fig. 2: Causal Mo del of Research 3. Re sea rch me tho d Present r esearch fr om pur pos e point o f view is practical and fr om perfor mance p oint of view is solidar ity and caus al (subsequen ce). Stud y popu lation o f this res earch; cons is t of all emp lo ye es of Shir az teleco mmunication Comp any . Accord in g statis tics o btained from Shir az teleco mmu nication, number o f employees of the compan y is 7 00 member s. Samp le s iz e, is calculated 24 8 member s bas ed on the kr ejeci an d Morgan formu la. 3 type of ques tio nnair es has been used to gather in for matio n needed for the s tu dy o f “the effectivenes s of organization al commun icatio n” (Nan chy an and other s, 20 00)which is a 25 item qu estionnair e, Minn eso ta Job Satisfaction Ques tion naire (1 967) which has been prepar ed an d compiled at the State Univer sity by Weiss Davis, George E nglan d and Lafco sit. Jo b mo tivation questionnair e of Hackman and Oldham (19 76) also was used. The s cor es o f the reliability o f the questio nnair e were calcu lated as follows: Questio nnair e o f effectiv eness of or gan iz atio n commun icatio n: 0 .8 4 and effectivenes s comp onen t: commun icatio n, 0.84; feedback , 0 .8 3; mu ltiple commun icatio n channels , 0 .8 3. Ques tio nnair e of jo b motiv atio n: 0.82 an d mo tivation co mponents: impor tance o f task , 0.81; v ar iety of task, 0.8; identity of tas k, 0 .8 2; feed b ack, 0 .8 1 and indepen den ce, 0.81. Ques tio nnair e of jo b s atis factio n: 0.79 an d d imension s o f jo b s atis factio n: inner s atis faction, 0 .7 8; o uter s atis factio n, 7 9; o ver all s atis faction, 79. Data collected for this res earch were an alyzed u sing SPSS s oftware an d LISREL . Statistical methods u sed in this study are criteria and methods of s tatis tical cor relation ass umptions to as sess the v alid ity of hyp othes is . Rese arc h hypo the sis te st Satisfaction has a s ignificant imp act on the effectivenes s of commu nication Due to the effect factor of β =0 .2 2 and critical v alue = 3.27= t v alue (-1 .9 6 < t< 1.96) r epo rted in Table 1, which higher than 1 .9 6, p red ictive v ariabl e effective commun icatio ns can influence and ex plain the s atis faction criterion v ariables. A s a r es ult, by D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 48 ens uring 0 .9 5, this hy pothesis will be confir med an d con flictin g claims rejected. Ta ble 1: the impac t o f communic ation effec tiv eness variable o n satisfaction c riterio n variable D irec t way Effect factor (β) Number of signific ance (t-value) Result Effec tiveness of c ommunication → satisfactio n 0.22 3.27 Hy pothesis confirmation The se cond hypo the sis Jo b mo tivation has a s ignificant impact on jo b satisfaction. T able 2: The impac t o f job mo tivation variable o n job satis fac tion v ariable D irec t way Effect factor (β) Number of signific ance (t -value) Result Jo b motivation → job satisfac tion 0.61 8.44 Hy pothesis confirmation Due to the effect factor of β =0 .6 1 and critical value = 8.44 = t value (-1.96> t> 1.96) r ep orted in Table 2, which is higher than 1 .9 6, predictiv e var iable job motiv atio n can in fluence and ex plain j o b satisfaction variables. A s a result, by en sur ing 0. 95, this hy pothes is will be co nfir med and con flictin g claims rejected. Third hy pothesis Effectiv eness of commu nication has a significant impact o n jo b motiv atio n Ta ble 3: Impac t o f effec tiveness of c ommunication variable o n job motivation variable D irec t way Effect factor (β ) Number of signific ance (t-value) Result effectiveness o f co mmunic ation → jo b motivation 0. 34 4.61 Hy po thesis co nfirmation Due to the effect factor of β =0 .3 4 and critical value = 4.61 = t value (-1.96> t> 1.96) r ep orted in Table 3, which is higher than 1 .9 6, predictiv e var iable effectiv eness o f co mmunication can influen ce and exp lain job mo tivation variables . A s a res ult, by ensu ring 0.95, this hyp othes is will be con firmed and conflicting claims rejected. Four th hypothes is Effectiv eness of communicatio n with mediatio n o f jo b mo tivation has a s ignificant impact on jo b s atisfaction Table 4 : illustration o f the effec tiv eness of comm unicatio n variables with mediation of job motiv atio n on job satisfaction Accor din g Table 4, effectivenes s of commun icatio n has a s ignificant p ositiv e impact o n jo b mo tivation (β=.34 and t coefficient=4 .6 1) an d j o b mo tivation has impact o n job s atis faction and exp lain it . (β =0.61 and t coefficient=8 .4 4). So effectiv eness of communication variable, exp lain s jo b s atisfaction cr iter ion var iable with med iation of jo b motivation var iable. As a result, the o riginal hypo thesis based on mediation of job mo tivation in the way of impact of effectivenes s of commun icatio n on jo b satisfaction will be ap pro ved and con flictin g claims will be rejected. Goodness o f fitting tes ts When a mod el has been su ppor ted theor etically and app rop riately, n ext s tage is to investigate the p rop ortion of this mod el and the d ata collected by the r esear cher. In this model, Roo t Mean Squ ar e E rr or of Appr oximation (R MSEA) which is an index bas ed on a decen tr alized parameter and is less affected by s ample size and could measur e lack o f f it for each degree of fr eed om equ al to 0.02 14Less than 0 .0 ind icates a go od fit of the mod el, if less than 0.1 ind icates a good fit of the mo del, then the mo del i s a resu lt Ind ir ect effect Hy po thesis confirmation E ffect factor (β) 0.34 * 0 .61 Effec tiveness of c ommunication → Job mo tivatio n → Job satisfac tion N umber o f significanc e (t-value) 4.61 8.44 D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 49 goo d fit. Other ind icators are based on the model f it ind ices : RMR, GFI, IFI, CFI, N FI has been meas ured (Table 4 and Table 5) sho ws a go od fit of the mo del . Str uctur al e quation The r es ear ch mo del was fitted and the results ar e sho wn in F ig. 3 an d Fig. 4. 4. Disc uss io n and Co nclusion E ffectivenes s of or ganization C ommunication s with effect coefficient of 0.22 has an impact o n jo b s atis faction and as sumption of impact of thes e v ariables on job satisfaction , by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. job motivation with effect coefficient o f 0.61 has impact on jo b s atis factio n and ass umptio n of impact o f thes e var iables o n job s atis faction, by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. E ffectivenes s of o rganization communication with effect coefficient of 0.34 has imp act on jo b mo tivation and as sump tion of impact of thes e v ariables on job satisfaction , by ensu ring 0.95 is v erified. A bout the ro le o f job motivation means, effectivenes s o f o rganization C ommunication s with co efficient o f 0 .3 4 has impact o n jo b mo tivation an d job mo tivation with coefficient of 0 .6 1 has impact on job satis factio n and the main hypo thesis bas ed on the role of job motiv atio n mediator have been confir med in the co urs e of an impact o n the effectiv eness o f communication . Goo dnes s of fitting tes ts , v erify research con cep tual metho d bas ed o n impact of effectivenes s of Or gan iz atio n C ompany and its v ariables on jo b mo tivation and the impact of this v ar iable and compo nen ts o n jo b satisfaction . The r esu lts obtained abov e sho w that effectivenes s of or ganiz ation commun icatio n thr ough in creas in g job mo tivation will enhance jo b s atisfaction. Therefor e, the d ir ecto rs an d officers of the company can incr ease job satisfaction of their employees thr ough enhancin g emp lo yees’ jo b mo tivation and or gan iz atio n commu nication pr oper managemen t. Managemen t, enviro nmental facto rs, s ocial- p sychological factors , pers onal factor s and cultur a l facto rs con firmed pr ofit-tak in g man power p rod uctivity o f Aghajar i oil and gas fir ms. Tab le 5 : T he ultim ate model fit indexes o f researc h Statistic indicato rs title Original mo del Acc eptable range Test result χ2 / df 1.92 χ 2 / df <2 Model confirmatio n P-v alue 0.198 P >0.05 Model confirmatio n RMSEA 0.0214 RMSEA <0.09 Model confirmatio n R MR 0.0012 R MR<0.09 Model confirmatio n GF I 0.9 GF I >0.9 Model confirmatio n AGFI 0.93 AGFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n CF I 0.95 CFI>0.9 Model confirmatio n RF I 0.91 RFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n NF I 0.94 NFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n NNFI 0.92 NNFI >0.9 Model confirmatio n Fig. 3: fit in a standard estimate D arija ni et al / WA LIA, 30(S3) 2014, Pa ges: 43-51 50 Fig . 4: model in a significant number 5. Sugge stions A cco rding firs t hyp othes is bas ed on effectiven es s o f organization co mmu nications on jo b s atis faction, it is s uggested that director s and o fficer s of Shir az Telecommu nication Company, p rov id e neces sary arr angemen ts to imp rov e r elations between man agers an d employees an d employees amo ng themselves and in creas e their job s atisfaction. A cco rding s econd hy pothesis bas ed on impact of job motivation on job satisfactio n, it is sugges ted that by giv ing p rop er tas k to each individual an d p rov id in g ind ependen ce of employees , they can increase their jo b motiv atio n and job s atis faction. A cco rding third hyp othes is based o n impact of effectivenes s of o rganization co mmunications o n job motivation, it is sugges ted that directo rs of Shiraz Telecommunicatio n Company can r einfo rce employees’ job mo tivation thr ough communicatio n s tr ategies amon g employees an d establishin g pr oper r elatio nship between managers and emplo yees. A cco rding four th hypothesis based on impact of effectivenes s of o rganization co mmunications o n job s atisfaction with mediatio n o f job motivation, it is s uggested that director s and d ecis io n makers of Shiraz Telecommunicatio n Company can imp rov e employee’s job motivation and jo b s atis factio n thr ough commun ication strategies and imp rov in g the enviro nmen t of organization , creating s ens e of ind ependen ce, creatin g s en se of impor tance of their tas ks and s ens e o f satisfaction du e to the tas ks they are ass igned to. Refere nces A likhani, H (19 95). 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