Observational Learning

  This is what I have written already!

Observational Learning

Amanda June Lewis

Professor Heather Lippard

Argosy University Online


  In this paper will discuss the negative and positive of
those students who have disabilities. Should these students be mainstreamed
into the regular classes or should they be kept united in their own classrooms.
The age old question should those that are behaviorally challenged and children
that have disabilities be put with those in a regular classroom? Would students
with learning disabilities be put with those with behavioral issues? I have
been working with this subject for over thirty years and will share the pros
and cons of inclusion and segregation of these children and issues they face in
the classrooms of our schools. Do these classes actually increase or decrease
the issues that are challenging the children. We will also take a look at how
observational learning effects these children.

  There are many things to be said on the subject of
handicapped children and young adults and the environment in which they are
associated. Being a mother of a Down’s child that was extremely malnourished
when we got him and being told that he would be a vegetable his whole life. I
knew better, he needed stimulation and encouragement to make a difference in
his life. Just as my niece that was left deaf after having spinal meningitis.
First of all we understood that our children would have difficulties but we
also never treated them as if they were handicapped, they just had to learn in
a different way. This is where observational learning was a large component of
their learning. They learned to do anything anyone else can do, maybe not as
good or perhaps better in some instants. They never knew they were different. My
niece saw a little boy in a wheelchair at Wal-Mart one day and said, “Aw look
Mama, that little boy is handicapped, I will pray that he will be normal like
me” (Jenny Rae Lee).  I think that said
it all. Another time my son and I were at Wal-Mart there was this little boy
that was handicapped and he wanted to pray for him to be like him. He looked at
me and said “Mama he will be okay, alright Mama” (Marcus) and he was very
matter of fact. “I prayed for him, he will be okay.” (Marcus). Our children,
what most consider normal, were raise to respect them and to listen even though
they are handicapped they are their elders. My grandchildren call him Uncle
Markie and he loves them with all his heart. He calls them “his kids.” These observational
lessons were taught to our children from babies up as inclusion was taking
place. When they went to school it was another story however.

  In school they isolate all kinds of behaviors and
disabilities in a class referred to as “Special Education” class. All behaviors
and disabilities are in one classroom. Those that were extremely dysfunctional
and those that were not. It is difficult for those that were not to achieve
advancement. The aides are working constantly with those that cannot do for
themselves, which is good. However, I must ask what happens to those that are
able to learn through observation when the aides are too busy to accomplish the
goals for those to observe? So those that learn from observational learning are
somewhat hindered and even going backwards at times, due to the lack of what
they are observing. Example: A child needs to observe an aide or teacher counting
blocks or showing colors. The aide/teacher was busy taking a child in and out
of the room for the rest room cleaning them up. This leaves the child to fin
for themselves in the classroom. They are learning by what they are observing
and that is not good. My experience is that Special Education rooms contain
babysitters and not much more in my over thirty years of dealing with these
services. They are so busy trying to keep up with the children that they cannot
show good behaviors or actually teach the children. Every time I would go to
the school (pop in) my son would be sitting watching a movie or listening to a
cassette tape which he could be doing at home. My sister had the same problem
with Jenny at the deaf school, not being taught, just baby sat. We could have
done that ourselves at home. They are the professionals and we expected
teaching to be taking place as it has been proven that children with
disabilities can learn.

  In our book, Learning and Behavior, it states; [Baer,
Peterson, and Sherman (1967) reinforced several children who were profoundly
retarded for imitating a variety of behaviors performed by the teacher
(standing up, nodding yes, opening a door). After establishing imitative
responses (which required several sessions), the teacher occasionally performed
various new behaviors, and the children would also imitate these behaviors
although they were never reinforced for doing so.] (Mazur J. E., 2006).This is proof that these children with
a little initiative of the teacher can learn new things. Inclusion has been
debated for many years as the term generally represents “full inclusions.” This
is where the disabled children are taught in a normal class setting for the day
and are allowed to be a part of the classroom development. Their classes in “art,
library, physical education and allotments such as lunch, playground activities
and assemblies,” (Seehorn, n.d.) meaning the students
are all treated the same. Through mainstreaming 


Mazur, 2006.  Learning and Behavior (6th ed). Pearson
Learning Solutions.


This is the assignment. We are graded on the rubic at the bottom with the points for each attached! Do you know how many hours you might need? Thanks.

Assignment 2: Inclusion versus Segregation

One of the top issues in special education
is the ongoing debate of “inclusion versus segregation.” The idea of
inclusion in education is that all students, no matter what disability
they may have, should learn together in the same environment. Fully
inclusive schools do not differentiate between special education
courses and general education courses, but rather include students with
learning, emotional, behavioral, or physical disabilities in classes
with all of the other students.

The idea of segregation in education
suggests that there are benefits to providing classes separate from
general education classes that meet the needs of students with special
needs. For some students, this may be for just one or two subjects,
while for other students, this encompasses all of their courses.

In this assignment, you will consider those students who suffer from behavioral disorders or social skill deficits.

Using the module readings, the Argosy
University online library resources, and the Internet, research
observational learning. Then, address the following:

  • Based on your learning about observational learning
    in this module, what are the benefits that these students could gain
    through their inclusion into a regular classroom?
  • How could the principles of observational
    learning help to improve the classroom behavior of students with
    behavioral disorders or social skill deficits?
  • What are some of the classroom disadvantages for employing inclusion for other typically developing students?
  • Do you support the move toward inclusion? Why or why not?

Write a 4–5-page paper in Word format. Apply
APA standards to citation of sources. Be sure to include a title page
and a reference page. Use the following file naming convention:

By Wednesday, October 30, 2013, deliver your assignment to the M4: Assignment 2 Dropbox.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Identified benefits to be
gained from inclusion of students with behavioral disorders and
described ways in which principles of observational learning could
improve classroom behavior of such students.


Identified classroom disadvantages for employing observational learning principles for typically developing students.


Provided reasons for or against the move towards inclusion.


Wrote in a clear, concise,
and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate
representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling,
grammar, and punctuation.




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