Answer 2 questions about Semantics and Pragmatics

1. Construct original examples of each of the following, and briefly explain how your examples satisfy the given conditions (1-2 sentences should suffice for each pair of sentences).

  1. a pair of sentences where one entails the other, but not the other way around
  2. a pair of mutually entailing sentences
  3. a pair of incompatible sentences
  4. a pair of sentences with no entailment relationship

2. Consider the following six sentences of English, each of which features an idiom (underlined):


Actions speak louder than words.


It’s raining cats and dogs right now.


This new computer cost me an arm and a leg.


I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.


Suzanne gave him the cold shoulder when he came late to the party.


After we complained about the wait, the restaurant picked up the tab for our meal.

a. Paraphrase each of the six sentences using the compositional, literal meaning of the idiom it contains.

b. Paraphrase each of the six sentences using the non-compositional, idiomatic meaning of the idiom it contains.

c. Provide at least 6 additional examples of sentences with idioms different than those featured in the data above, and analyze the sentences in the same way as required for parts a.-b. Your idioms may come from English or another language you’re familiar with.

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