GUI interaction with the user, discussion help

Each must be at least 150 words with proper references. Posts must be substantial and must not critique or discuss the other persons writing ability and so forth. It needs to be professional.


1) Chapter 15

Application Development fundamentals

  • • GUI interaction with the user
  • • Sensor data available (GPS, acceleration, etc.)
  • • Authentication and account access
  • • Interaction with remote servers

Creating applications that revolve around the individual is something we have seen build quickly and feel a lot of people are still unaware of how some of the application may work. Have you ever wondered why your social media sends you adds on the food places you like or places you’ve been to? The use of this context-specific information not only provides a unique interaction style and allows the design of applications, which present rich interaction mechanisms, but it also provides its own set of challenges (such as security and privacy concerns) (Beard & Stalling). A lot of these apps track what you do what your browsing at to send data to the app and learn what to show you. Why do you think the app was free? Some of the apps provide features that you can disable these things such as location, camera, and audio. We should be aware of what the app is that we are downloading and question why does the coloring book app for my kid need to use the camera and why does it need to know where we are if it’s just a coloring book for kids? With so many apps that look alike and are similar it can be difficult to find a safe one that you can feel comfortable downloading for your kids to use.

2) Chapter 14

Hi Class

Distance (increasing range) can be a key factor contributing to a wireless signal’s degradation. The result for a digital wireless signal is increasing Bit Error Rates (BER). For an analog wireless signal, the result of increasing distance is a distorted and weak waveform.

With any medium, be it over the air, copper, fiber, or coaxial, the distance from the source (origin) of the signal to the receiver contributes to the signal deteriorating. However, with wireless , the signal degradation is much greater than over a physical medium. In fact there is a free space loss (FSPL) rule of thumb that says signal loss is reduced further by 6 dB every time the distance is double. Of course, other factors such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or dirty contacts can also cause a signal to degrade.

Wireless signals attenuate rapidly as distance increases just as speaking voice signal attenuates when you attempt hear the speaker when you move from the front to the back of a large auditorium. With digital signals, an appropriate signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio is desired or the signal will not be recoverable. Same with the speaking voice ~ an appropriate signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio is necessary or all you will not be able to understand a word.

In wireless digital communications, the bit error rate (BER ) is the number of bits that were misinterpreted between the transmitter and receiver . This number can be something like 1 error in a billion transmitted bits i.e. BER= 1/109 = 10-9. Increasing the SNR decreases the BER! Since wireless protocols we have been studying are networked based bit errors cause packet errors. Therefore we have a BER and a Packet Error Rate or PER.

To sum it up ~ those of us working in the wireless communication world like very large SNR which contributes to a small BER. Also, we in the wireless network communication world like very large SNR which contributes to a small PER!

3) Chapter 12

Hi Class,

Quality of Service (QoS) is yet another term that can mean many different things in networking. For example, QoS may imply we can somehow measure a user’s satisfaction (perceived or otherwise) with a service, e.g. an Internet Service Provider (ISP). For some, this type of network service can be measured objectively and reported on, much like a customer satisfaction survey. In networking (both wireless and wired), QoS more commonly refers to the delivery of data with particular measurable guarantees. Beard & Stallings (2015) write the QoS feature of flow control associated with many wireless forms of communication including Bluetooth ,”is a set of parameters that indicate a performance level that the transmitter will attempt to achieve” ” (p. 393).

These QoS parameters are enforced via protocols and the monitoring of quantitative parameters which can verified with tools or other networking devices

Let’s use a FedEx delivery to highlight the difference. We desire to send a package at 8 PM EST overnight that must be received by 8 AM EST the next morning. The parameter to measure and monitor the package delivery is 12 hours. Anything less than 12 hours meets out definition of QoS and anything more than 12 hours fails to meet the defined QoS. Time of delivery is a measurable (QoS) parameter defined by a very firm 12 hour period. If the package was delivered by a rude delivery man it may not meet QoS from customer perspective, but these non-quantitative subjective measures were not part of our definition. Quality of Experience (QoE) is another term that is thrown around to measure non-quantitative factors involved with a network connection. (BTW : I rely do not like the term QoE and find it deceptive)

Other network QoS parameters could be the amount of data that must be delivered within a certain time; the maximum delay in delivery of the data; or even the maximum amount of data that can be lost. Each of these parameters is a measurable and enforceable commitment by the network. Similar to FedEx committing to delivering your package overnight by 8 AM EST. FedEx may also advertise a guaranteed QoE, but this type commitment is much more difficult to enforce and measure.

Question for NTC 247s: What type of wireless network QoS connection would benefit from a constant bit rate where the bit rate (bits per second) would not vary?

4) Chapter 12

Hi Class,

Because their is a higher probability that a digital message will be corrupted over a wireless channel ~ W-LANs, Hi-def television, digital radio, & smart phones all use error correction for the purpose of correcting corrupted bits that might occur during transmission If you dive into Chapter 12& 13 (Beard & Stallings, 2015) you’ll see that Bluetooth uses a particular type of Forward Error Correction (FEC) Any number of FEC types could easily fix the problem of correcting the erroneously received symbol ‘1000‘ that was originally transmiited as a ‘1001‘ (iin other words the fourth bit was corrupted). . For a receiver to detect and correct bits the origianl signal must be encoded. Encoding involves adding extra bits – i.e. original bit length of the signal is longer. The extra bits are then used by the receiver to determine if the signal was received in error. If an error occurred, then the receiver can decode the signal correctly using the extra bits.

There are generally two different types of encoding/decoding techniques that are used with FEC. Convolution coding operates on one bit at a time while block coding operates on many bits at a time. Reed Solomon coding and Hamming codes are specific types of block coding.

Would any NTC247er care to briefly explain the benefits and disadvantages of block coding and/or convolution coding? Hint: Chapter 10 (Beard & Stallings, 2015) provides good background on FEC.

5) Chapter 20

I think alot of companies dont recognize the benefit compared risk involved. Id rather use a CID instead of my own device simply because then everything i do isnt subject for review by the company. I have seen a few places that incorporate policies to allow BYOD however in the fine print it stated that use of device on company resources is subject to review for instances of possible trade secret violation for example. Whether it is BYOD or even CID ypur trusting someone with data that is senstive and not to mentioned a device that has approved access to network.

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